How to check if an integer number is a power of 2 in Java is one of the popular programming interview question and has been asked in many interviews. Surprisingly, this problem which looks simple enough to answer, doesn't turn out that simple if for many developers. Many Java programmers, both freshers and less experienced, struggle to write code for a function, which can check if number is power of 2 or not. There could be many different reasons for that, but it’s expected to at least come up with brute force solution. For those who are familiar with bitwise operators in Java , how positive and negative numbers are represented in binary format, this exercise is quite easy. Since negative numbers are represented as 2's complement value in Java, you can easily find if any number is power of 2 or not by looking at its bit pattern. Remember checking for power of two is different than checking if number is even or odd, that’s another thing to note. A number can be even, but it’s not necessary to be a power of two, e.g. 6 is even but it’s not a power of two.
A NullPointerException in Java application is best way to solve it and that is also key to write robust programs which can work smoothly. As it said “prevention is better than cure”, same is true with nasty NullPointerException. Thankfully by applying some defensive coding techniques and following contract between multiple part of application, you can avoid NullPointerException in Java to a good extent. By the way this is the second post on NullPointerException in Javarevisited, In last post we have discussed about common cause of NullPointerException in Java and in this tutorial, we will learn some Java coding techniques and best practices, which can be used to avoid NullPointerException in Java. Following these Java tips also minimize number of !=null check, which litter lot of Java code. As an experience Java programmer, you may be aware of some of these techniques and already following it in your project, but for freshers and intermediate developers, this can be good learning. By the way, if you know any other Java tips to avoid NullPointerException and reduce null checks in Java, then please share with us.
XSLT stands for XML style sheet transformation and it as XML technology used to transform one XML into another XML or HTML format. XML and XSLT interview questions are commonly asked Java developers, who happen to use XML in their project and mentioned XSLT as a key skill in their resume. Given XML’s popularity as data transfer protocol, many systems in middle and back office space uses XML messages to transfer trade details, for example, Bookings, Settlement, and Confirmation system use it as a data exchange protocol. Since each of this system performs some normalization, enrichment, and transform on incoming trade message, they use XSLT for that transformation. XSLT is rich, powerful and given its support in Java and several other programming languages, it comes the natural choice of XML transformation. What you need to is to write XSL files, also known as XML style sheet to specify your transformation rule and then XSLT engine will transform each incoming XML documents as per your XSL file.
SED command in UNIX is stands for stream editor and it can perform lot's of function on file like, searching, find and replace, insertion or deletion. Though most common use of SED command in UNIX is for substitution or for find and replace. By using SED you can edit files even without opening it, which is much quicker way to find and replace something in file, than first opening that file in VI Editor and then changing it. In this SED command tutorial we will see some practical examples of SED command in UNIX based systems e.g. Linux. I must say having a good grip on find, grep, sort, vi editor and SED can take you next level of UNIX and Linux working experience. These are very powerful UNIX command and helps with lot of different tasks in server. By the way we will use following text file for our SED common example. As I have said before, best way to learn any UNIX command is to use them in your day to day task, and a good example is a good start. This file contains details of some popular android and iPhone smartphones, e.g. Model, company, price etc, separated by colon. You can also use any CSV file for this example.
In software development and programming world, we often need to generate random numbers, sometimes random integers in a range e.g. 1 to 100 etc. Thankfully, Random number generation in Java is easy as Java API provides good support for random numbers via java.util.Random class, Math.random() utility method and recently ThreadLocalRandom class in Java 7, along with more popular features like String in Switch and ARM blocks. While random() method seems the most convenient way of generating randoms in Java it only returns random doubles, on the other hand by using Random, you can generate pseudo-random integer, floating point numbers e.g. double and even random boolean values. In this article Java tutorial, we will see how to generate random numbers in Java, examples to generating random integers and real numbers, and random numbers within a range e.g. between 1 to 6. we will also explore the difference between Math.random() and java.util.Random class in Java.
When to use interface and abstract class is one of the most popular object oriented design questions and almost always asked in Java, C#, and C++ interviews. In this article, we will mostly talk in the context of Java programming language, but it equally applies to other languages as well. The question usually starts with a difference between abstract class and interface in Java, which is rather easy to answer, especially if you are familiar with the syntax of Java interface and abstract class. Things start getting difficult when interviewer ask about when to use abstract class and interface in Java, which is mostly based upon a solid understanding of popular OOPS concepts like Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Abstraction, Inheritance, and Composition. Many programmers fumbles here, which is natural because most of them haven't gone through real system design process and haven’t seen the impact of choosing one over other.
Write a Java program to check if a linked list is circular or cyclic, and how do you find if a linked list contains loop or cycles in Java are some common linked list related data structure interview questions asked in various Java Interviews. This is some time asked as follow-up question of basic linked list questions like inserting element at beginning, middle and end of linked list or finding length of linked list. In order to solve linked list related algorithmic question in Java, you need to be familiar with concept of singly linked list, doubly linked list and circular linked list. Until stated specifically, most questions are based on singly linked list. For those who are not familiar of linked list data structure, its a collection of nodes. Each node contains two parts data and address, where address part points to another node in linked list. Last node of linked list, often referred as tail points to null. Also a singly list can only move in one direction, towards end. Now, let's come back to this question. Good thing about this question is that, it can also be solved by using two pointer approach discussed in How to find middle element of linked list in single pass. If a linked list contains a loop or cycle it is known as circular or cyclic linked list. As I said we can use two pointer approach to check if a linked list is circular or not.
There are two kinds of OUTER joins in SQL, LEFT OUTER join and RIGHT OUTER join. The main difference between RIGHT OUTER join and LEFT OUTER join, as there name suggest, is the inclusion of non-matched rows. Sine INNER join only include matching rows, where the value of joining column is same, in the final result set, but OUTER join extends that functionality and also include unmatched rows in the final result. LEFT outer join includes unmatched rows from table written on the left of join predicate. On the other hand, RIGHT OUTER join, along with all matching rows, includes unmatched rows from the right side of the table.
So, you have a List of Integers and you want to convert them into int array? Yes you read it write, not on Integer array but int array. Though in most practical purpose, Integer array can be used in place of int because of autoboxing in Java, you still need an int if your method accepts it. In Java, you can not type cast an Integer array into int array. Many Java programmer think about toArray() method from java.util.List to convert a List into Array, but unfortunately toArray() is useless in most of times. It doesn't allow you to convert List into primitive arrays. Though you can convert List of Integers to array of Integers, but not array of primitive int. This is true for List of all wrapper class e.g. List of Float, Double, Long, toArray() method can return array of wrapper class but not primitives. After looking into Java Collection API, It seems that only traditional for loop or foreach can help, which involves iterating over Integer array and storing them into int, but fortunately, I came across Apache Commons ArrayUtils class. ArrayUtils can do this work for us, It has several overloaded methods to convert Object arrays into primitive arrays.
In this part of Java programming mistakes, we will take a look at another common pattern, where programmers tend to use "==" operator to compare Objects, similar to comparing primitives. Since equality of object can be very different in the physical and logical sense, and in the case of domain objects it's mostly driven by business rules, comparing objects with "==" operator, introduces subtle bugs, which are hard to find. The difference between equals() and == operator, one of the Java classics is also asked to find out if the developer is familiar with this important concept or not. Using == operator only make sense when comparing primitives like int, or final constants like Enum. Though there is more involve in comparing two Enum, which you learn by following that link. One of the most common patterns of this mistake is is comparing two Strings with the == operator, which we will see in this article. By the way, this is third in series of common Java programming mistakes, and if you haven't read the previous two, you can read them here :
Recently this question to asked was one of my reader, which inspired me to write this tutorial. There was usual check to solve this problem using both recursion and iteration. To be frank, calculating sum of digit of an integral number, is not difficult, but I have still seen quite a few programmers fumbles, even after providing hint in terms of division and modules operator. Key point here is to know how to use division and modules operator in Java. For this kind of exercise including reversing a number, where you need to find digits from a number, use division operator to remove right, and use modules operator or % to get right most digits. For example if you have number 1234 than 1234/10 will give you 123 i.e. right most digit 4 is removed, while 1234%10 will give you 4, which is the right most digit in that number. If you know this property, you can easily solve lots or problems which are related to reversing numbers e.g. checking if a number is palindrome or finding Armstrong numbers in Java.