Inter Thread Communication in Java using Wait Notify Example

Wait and notify methods in Java are used for inter-thread communication i.e. if one thread wants to tell something to another thread, it uses notify() and notifyAll() method of java.lang.Object. Classical example of wait and notify method is Producer Consumer design pattern, where One thread produce and put something on shared bucket, and then tell other thread that there is an item for your interest in shared object, consumer thread than pick than item and do his job, without wait() and notify(), consumer thread needs to be busy checking, even if there is no change in state of shared object. This brings an interesting point on using wait and notify mechanism, a call to notify() happens, when thread changed state of shared object i.e. in this case producer change bucket from empty to not empty, and consumer change state from non empty to empty. Also wait and notify method must be called from synchronized context, wondering why, read this link for some reasons which makes sense. Another important thing to keep in mind while calling them is, using loop to check conditions instead of if block. This is really tricky for beginners, which often don't understand difference and wonders why wait and notify get called form loops. Joshua Bloch has a very informative item on his book Effective Java, I strongly suggest reading that. In short, a waiting thread may woke up, without any change in it's waiting condition due to spurious wake up. For example, if a consumer thread, which is waiting because shared queue is empty, gets wake up due to a false alarm and try to get something from queue without further checking whether queue is empty or not than unexpected result is possible. Here is standard idiom for calling wait, notify and notifyAll methods in Java :

How to call wait method in Java :

How to redirect a page or URL using JavaScript and JQuery

Redirecting a web page means, taking user to new location. Many website use redirect for many different reasons, e.g. Some website redirect user from old domain to new domain, some redirect from one page to another e.g. a more relevant page. If you are Java programmer, and worked previously with Servlet and JSP, then you might be familiar with SendRedirect and Forward methods, which are used to redirect user in web applications. Actually there are two kinds of redirect, Server side redirect and client side redirect. In Server side redirect, server initiate redirection, while in client side redirect, client code does the redirection. Redirecting a web page using JavaScript and JQuery is a client side redirection. Well, HTTP redirection is a big topic and different people do it differently. e.g. bloggers mostly used platform like WordPress, Blogger feature to redirect a page, though this might be restricted to same domain. In this JavaScript and jQuery tutorial, we will learn a new JQuery tip to redirect a page.

JUnit Testing Tips - Constructor is Called Before Executing Test Methods

Most of Java programmers either use JUnit or TestNG for there unit testing need, along with some mock object generation libraries e.g. Mockito, but not everyone spend time and effort to learn subtle details of these testing libraries, at least not in proportion of any popular framework e.g. Spring or Hibernate. In this blog post, I am sharing one of such details, which has puzzled me couple of years ago. At that time, though I had been using JUnit for significant time, I wasn't aware that code written inside constructor of Test class is executed before each test method.  This behaviour of JUnit has caused, some of my test to failed and putting hours of investigation in my code, without realizing that this is happening because of JUnit is initializing object by calling constructor before executing test method annotated with @Test annotation. I had following code to test my vending machine implementation as coding exercise. If you look at closely, I have initialized vending machine in class body, which is executed as part of constructor. I was assuming one instance of vending machine is shared between all test methods, as I was not using @Before and @After, JUnit 4 annotation for setup() and tearDown(). In first test, one item from Inventory is consumed and in second test another item, but when you assert count of items based upon previous test, it will fail, because you are testing a different vending machine instance, which has different inventory.  So always, remember that JUnit calls constructor of test class before executing test method. You can verify it by putting a System.out.println message in constructor itself.

How to configure Log4j in Java program without XML or Properties File

Sometime configuring Log4j using XML or properties file looks annoying, especially if your program not able to find them because of some classpath issues, wouldn't it be nice if you can configure and use Log4j without using any configuration file e.g. XML or properties. Well, Log4j people has thought about it and they provide a BasicConfigurator class to configure log4j programmatically, thought this is not as rich as there XML and properties file version is, but it's really handy for quickly incorporating Log4j in your Java program. One of the reason programmer prefer to use System.out.println() over Log4j, of-course for testing purpose, because it doesn't require any configuration, you can just use it, without bothering about XML or properties file configuration, but most programmer will agree that, they would prefer to use Log4j over println statements, even for test programs if it's easy to set them up. By the way, for production use prefer SLF4J over Log4J.  In this Java tutorial, we will see a nice little tip to use Log4j right away by configuring in couple of lines. In fact you can configure Log4J in just one line, if you intend to use there basic configuration which set's the log level as DEBUG.

When to make a method final in Java

Final keyword in Java is not as mysterious as volatile or transient, but still it creates lot of doubts on programmers mind. I often receives questions like, When to make a method final in Java or When to make a method static in Java, later I answered in my earlier post. Questions like this is not trivial, knowing what a keyword does is just small part of mastering that functionality. Similar to real world, where knowing that a sword can cut lot of things is not enough for a warrior to survive, you need to know how to use that and more importantly, use if effectively. Final keyword can be applied to class, methods and variable and has different meaning for each of them, but the motive remains same, it state completeness, it opposes change. For example, final class can not be extended, value of final variable can not be change and a final method can not be overridden in Java. This gives you first hint, when to make a method final in Java, obviously to prevent subclass for changing it's definition, technical preventing it from overridden. There are lot of clues on How to use final keyword on methods in Java API itself, one of the prime example of this java.lang.Object class, which declares a lot of method final including wait method with timeout. Another example of making a method final is template method, which outlines algorithm in Template method design pattern. Since, you don't want a sub class to change the outline of algorithm, making it final will prevent any accidental or malicious overriding. In this tutorial, we will learn few things, which will help you to effectively use final keywords with Java methods.