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Friday, September 15, 2023

Top 5 Difference Between Callable and Runnable Interface in Java

The difference between Callable and Runnable is one of the most frequently asked multi-threading and concurrency interview questions in the Java world. I remember it was 2007 when I first heard about the Callable interface and that too on a telephonic interview. Till then, I was happy using Runnable to implement threads and just started paying attention to Java 1.5, as most of the applications by then using Java 1.4. That one interview question encouraged me to learn more about several other useful features introduced in Java 5 concurrency library like CountDownLatch, CyclicBarrier, Semaphore, Atomic variables, and Thread pool. This is one of the reasons I always encourage Java developers to give/take regular interviews, just to update your knowledge.

In this article, I'll discuss how to answer this question by highlighting some key differences between Runnable and Callable in Java. I didn't know all these points at that time but my research after that helped to learn more about the Callable interface.

Even though both Callable and Runnable interface are used to encapsulate task supposed to be executed by another thread, there is two key difference between Callable and Runnable interface:

1. Callable can return result
2. Callable can throw checked Exception.

In fact, a Callable interface was introduced in Java 1.5 to address the above two limitations of the Runnable interface i.e. Runnable cannot return the result of computation which is essential if you are performing some computing task in another thread, and Runnable cannot throw checked exception. Now, Java's multi-threading API has got the best of both worlds.

As I said, what is the difference between Callable and Runnable is also one of the frequently asked multithreading interview questions in Java, so knowing the difference not only helps you to write better code but also to do well on interviews? Let's see a couple of more differences between these two interfaces to understand them better.

Btw, if you are serious about mastering Java multi-threading and concurrency then I also suggest you take a look at the Java Multithreading, Concurrency, and Performance Optimization course by Michael Pogrebinsky on Udemy. It's an advanced Java course to become an expert in Multithreading, concurrency, and Parallel programming in Java with a strong emphasis on high performance.

Similarities between Runnable and Callable  in Java

Before looking at the difference between the Runnable and Callable interface, let's look at the similarities between them, they are indeed quite similar.

1) The most common thing between them is that both are used to encapsulate code which needs to be run in parallel on a separate thread.

2) The second similarity between them is that bot can be used with the Executors framework introduced in Java 5. Executors framework defines ExecutorService interface which can accept and execute Runnable and Callable.

3) You can also convert Runnable to Callable by using the following utility method provided by Executors class

As I said, both are used to encapsulate the code, you want to run in a separate thread, but there is a limitation, you cannot execute a Callable instance in a thread, just like you execute a Runnable instance, you need an ExecutorService instance. Let's see them in detail.

Callable callable = Executors.callable(Runnable task);

4) The fourth similarity between the Runnable and Callable interface is that both are SAM type i.e. they have a single abstract method, which means they can be used in lambda expression in Java 8 as shown below.

new Thread( () -> System.out.println("Runnable") ).start()

Now, we know the similarities between Runnable and Callable interface, it's time to see the differences again. On the same note, you can also see Multithreading and Parallel Computing in Java course on Udemy to learn more about essential thread concepts like this. 

Callable vs Runnable in Java

Difference between Runnable vs Callable interface

Here are some important differences between these two key interfaces of Java's multithreading API in the point format.

1) Existence and Availability

The first and most important difference between Runnable and Callable interface is that Runnable is available in Java right from the beginning i.e. JDK 1.0 while Callable was later added to Java 5, so you cannot use Callable before Java 5.

2) Result

The second key difference between Callable and Runnable is that Callable can return the result of the parallel processing of a task. It returns a Future object, which represents the lifecycle of a task and provides methods to check if the task has been completed or canceled, retrieve the result or cancel the task. Since the return type of Runnable's run() method is void, it cannot return anything.

3) Checked Exception

Another worth noting difference between these two interfaces is that Callable's call() method can throw Checked exception while Runnable's run() method cannot throw checked exception.

4) The call() vs run() methods

In order to use Callable, you need to override the call() method while in order to use the Runnable interface you need to override the run() method in Java.

5) Execution

There is one limitation while using the Callable interface in Java that you cannot pass it to Thread as you pass the Runnable instance. There is no constructor defined in the Thread class which accepts a Callable interface. So in order to execute a Callable instance, you need to use the ExecutorService interface of the Java 5 Executor framework. This interface defines the submit() method which accepts a Callable instance and returns a Future object which holds the result of computation as shown below:

Future result = exec.submit(aCallable);
result = holder.get();

Remember, Future.get() is a blocking method and blocks until execution is finished, so you should always call this method with a timeout to avoid deadlock or livelock in your application.

In short, here is the key difference between Runnable and Callable in Java:

Callable vs Runnable in Java

That's all about the difference between a Callable and Runnable interface in Java. Apart from the basic fact that Callable was added later in Java 5, you should remember that Callable can return results and throw checked exceptions but you need ExecutorService to execute the Callable instance. The good thing is that both Runnable and Callable are SAM type so you can use them in lambda expressions.

Further Learning
Multithreading and Parallel Computing in Java
Java Concurrency in Practice - The Book
Applying Concurrency and Multi-threading to Common Java Patterns
Java Concurrency in Practice Course by Heinz Kabutz

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Thanks for reading this article of far. If you find this Callable vs Runnable comparison then please share it with your friends and colleagues. If you have any questions or feedback then please drop a note. 

P. S. - If you are a Java beginner and want to learn multithreading and concurrency and looking for some free courses to start with then you can also check out this free Java Multithreading course on Udemy. It is a good free course to learn  Java Concurrency as well.

And lastly, Let me know in comments if you have used Runnable or Callable in Java? Which one is your favorite?



@Javin , Nice short article to quickly jot down the points ,just to add ..Both have their uses, and both are supported by the Executor framework in java.util.concurrent. Runnable has been around longer, but it is still in use and not discouraged.

Callables can throw exceptions and return values, which makes them the better abstraction for result-bearing tasks (such as fetching a resource from the network, performing an expensive computation of a value, and the like) .
So, if you are designing an API, I would suggest using Callables when possible. If you are sure that the tasks will not return values and will not throw exceptions, then Runnables are also a valid choice. There is no black and white here, especially because Runnables can easily be wrapped in Callables and vice versa.

As an aside, note that your Callable implementation need not declare throws Exception; the fact that Callable itself declares it is only to allow implementors to throw any checked exceptions. Callers of your Callable who rely solely on the Callable interface will have to write exception handling code.

Also note that Callables need not return a value; you can simply declare your Callable to return Void (with capital 'V').

Unknown said...

@Javin, there is another difference that the run method can be called with Runnable object from the main thread, but call method cannot be executed with Callable object.

javin paul said...

Hello @Vivek, great point, never thought about it, but bit unclear, could you explain it with a code example please?

Anonymous said...

you can able to call call() method with callable also as executerservice is also calling call method

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