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Monday, May 22, 2023

Top 25 DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced Developers

Hello guys, if you re preparing for DevOps Engineer interviews and looking for frequently asked DevOps Interview questions then you have come to the right place. Earlier, I have shared the DevOps RoadMapbest DevOps Courses, and DevOps books and in this article, I will share the frequently asked DevOps Interview Questions and their Answers. But, before we get to the most frequently asked DevOps interview questions, let me tell you what DevOps actually is. DevOps is basically a way of thinking or a collective approach to all the tasks that a company's application development and IT operation teams perform but it has taken the IT software development world by storm.

More broadly, DevOps can also be seen as a philosophy that supports better communication and collaboration between various teams. DevOps includes a lot of things like software development, automation, infrastructure deployment, and maintenance.

The biggest advantage of DevOps is automation  and more and more companies are going towards automation for building and deploying application with the advent of cloud technologies like AWS, Azure, Docker, and Kubernetes. 

Because of that demand of DevOps Engineers and SRE (Site Reliability Engineers) are increasing and more and more experienced developers are moving towards DevOps for Career growth. It's one of the top career options for experienced Java developers along with Solution Architect.

If you also want to move into DevOps space and preparing for DevOps Engineer interviews or Site Reliability Engineer interviews and looking for popular interview questions then this list of questions can be great to revise key concept before interview.  

25 DevOps Interview Questions with Answers for Experienced

This article covers some of the most important interview questions related to DevOps. Using this article, you will be able to ace your interview, impress your potential employers, and land your dream DevOps job.

The interview questions in this article will help you develop your DevOps skills in a disciplined and structured manner so that you can easily get your certification as a DevOps Engineer. The DevOps Engineer certification will be valuable as you will be able to handle a wide variety of roles related to DevOps in the industry.

If you are looking to become a DevOps engineer, there are some skills that you should focus on and develop. For starters, you should be fluent in web languages like PythonPHP, or Java. You should also have some experience working with infrastructure automation tools. Ideally, you should also have strong interpersonal communication skills so that you can easily collaborate with other people. 

For your easy understanding, I have divided this article into 5 sections. The first section focuses on general DevOps Interview Questions. These questions are fairly straightforward and easy and most likely you know answer of all them but they very important to revise essential DevOps concepts. 

The second section deals with something called Continuous Integration in DevOps. This is basically a development protocol that allows developers to integrate code into a shared registry for easy collaboration.

The third and fourth sections deal with Continuous Testing and Configuration Management respectively. Finally, we will round off by discussing some questions related to Containerization and Virtualization.

1. General DevOps Interview Questions

The questions in this section are meant to test your basic understanding of DevOps. As a DevOps engineer you should be familiar with concepts and spirit of DevOps process and principles. 

1. Why do you need DevOps?

In the most basic terms, DevOps allows companies to achieve seamless software delivery. This is why major companies like Google, Etsy, and Amazon have used DevOps to achieve insane levels of performance. DevOps allow you to do thousands of code deployment per day without sacrificing stability and reliability.

2. What are some of the top DevOps tools?

Some of the most popular DevOps tools are:
  • Jenkins, which is a Continuous Integration tool
  • Nagios, which is a Continuous Monitoring tool
  • Docker, which is a Containerization tool
  • Selenium, which is a Continuous Testing tool
  • Git, which is a Version Control System tool

3. What are the advantages of DevOps?

DevOps provide many technical benefits like continuous software delivery, less complex problems, and faster resolution. It also provides many business benefits like stable operating environments and faster delivery of features. 

4. What are some of the core benefits of using DevOps?

The DevOps methodology is highly flexible, which means that it can adapt to changes easily. It also increases collaboration between the development team and the operation team. You can also increase efficiency by using automation and continuous integration. All of this means that customer satisfaction is also increased.

5. How can you use DevOps in real-life?

DevOps is really useful for a lot of industries. One of the best examples of a company transforming its fortunes with the help of DevOps is the case of Etsy. Etsy was frequently struggling with slow site updates that also resulted in site crashes. It affected almost all of Etsy's customers. But with the help of a new technical management team, Etsy transformed into an agile approach. These days, it has a fully automated deployment pipeline. Its continuous delivery practices have also resulted in more than 50 deployments per day with very few disruptions. 

6. What, according to you, is the most important thing that DevOps helps us to achieve?

If you ask me, the most important thing that DevOps helps achieve is that it allows us to get changes into production as quickly as possible. It minimizes risks in software quality assurance and compliance. This is also the main objective of DevOps. But it also provides many other positive effects. 

2. Continuous Integration Interview Questions and Answers

Pipeline development and management is one of the key job for DevOps Engineer and if you want to succeed in DevOps interview you should be familiar with Jenkins, TeamCity or similar tool as well the concept and practical of creating and maintaining build and deployment pipelines using tools like Jenkins, Docker, Ansible, and Puppets

7. What do you mean by Continuous Integration?

Continuous Integration is basically a practice that requires developers to integrate code into a shared registry for easy collaboration. This allows problems to be detected early. 

8. What are the requirements for Continuous Integration?

For successful Continuous Integration, you should maintain a code repository and automate the build. You should also make sure that all the developers commit to the baseline every day. You should make it easy to get the daily deliverables so that everyone can see the latest results.  

CI CD Interview Questions with answers

9. How will you move Jenkins from one server to another?

First, you can move the job from one installation of Jenkins to another by copying the job directory. Then you should rename the existing job, You can do this by renaming the directory. You can also make a copy of the existing job.

10. How can you set up a Jenkins job?

First, you should go to the Jenkins top page, select New Job, and then select Build a freestyle software project.

11. What, according to you, are some of the useful plugins in Jenkins?

Some of the most important plugins are Maven 2 Project, HTML Publisher, Amazon EC2, Copy Artifact, Green Balls, and Join.
These are some of the most useful plugins. 

12. How can you secure Jenkins?

There are many steps for securing Jenkins. For starters, you can make sure that Jenkins is fully integrated with the company's user directory with the appropriate plugin. You can also ensure that global security is on. You also have to automate the process of setting privileges in Jenkins with the help of a custom version-controlled script. You can limit access to Jenkins folders as well as periodically run audits. You also have t make sure that the Project matrix is tuned on to fine-tune access. 

3. Continuous Testing Interview Questions

This is the next area where DevOps are really tested as one of the job for DevOps is to maintain code quality and automation testing, code analysis, and automation build quality checks are quite important. Familiarity with tools like SonarQube can be great help to pass this round. 

13. What do you mean by Continuous Testing?

Continuous Testing is basically a process of running automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline. By doing this, you will be able to get immediate feedback on the associated business risks of the latest build.

14. What do you mean by Automation Testing?

Using Test Automation, you can automate the process of testing an application or a system. You can use separate testing tools which will allow you to create test scripts that can then be executed. 

15. What are the advantages of Automation Testing?

Automation Testing allows you to do parallel execution and also encourages unattended execution. It also increases accuracy as well as saves time and money. It also supports the execution of repeated test cases.

16. Why is Continuous Testing so important?

Continuous Testing allows you to test any changes made in the code immediately. Continuous Testing also facilitates more frequent and good quality releases. 

17. What are some of the key elements of Continuous Testing?

Some of the most important elements of continuous testing are risk assessment, policy analysis, requirements traceability, advanced analysis, test optimization, and service visualization.
  • Risk Assessment is made up of mitigation tasks, technical debt, quality assessment, and test coverage optimization to make sure that there is adequate progress.
  • Policy Analysis is used for making sure that all processes align with the company's business and compliance goals. 
  • Requirements Traceability ensures that true requirements are met and that rework is not required. It can also identify which requirements are at risk, working as expected, or require further validation. 
  • In Advanced Analysis, automation is used in areas such as static code analysis, change impact analysis, and scope assessment. This is useful for preventing defects in the first place as well as accomplishing more with each iteration. 
  • Test Optimization helps ensure that tests yield accurate outcomes and provide adequate findings. Different aspects of Test Optimization are Test Data Management, Test Optimization Management, and Test Maintenance. 
  • Service Visualization helps ensure that real-world testing environments are accessible. It also enables access to the virtual form of the required testing stages. It is useful for cutting waste time testing environment setup and availability. 

18. What are some of the benefits of using Selenium?

I have worked extensively with Selenium and some of its advantages are that
  • It has a large user base and amazing communities
  • It is free and open-source.
  • It has great platform compatibility and works well with Windows, Linus, and Mac. 
  • It has the cross-browser capability and works with Firefox, Google Chrome, and Internet Explorer.
  • It supports multiple programming languages like Java, Ruby, C#, Python, and Pearl. 
  • It supports distributed testing.
  • It has regular and fresh repository developments. 

19. What can you tell us about Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE can be seen as an integrated development environment that is useful for Selenium scripts. It can be implemented as a Firefox extension and you can use it to edit, record, and debug tests. The Selenium IDE includes the entire Selenium Core, which allows you to easily record and playback tests in actual environments. 

It has to autocomplete support as well as the ability to move around commands pretty quickly. You can say that Selenium IDE is the perfect environment for creating Selenium tests as it provides the perfect environment. 

4. Configuration Management Interview Questions

Automation of configuration and management is another big responsibility of DevOps Engineer, hence preparing Configuration Automation and management question is quite important for DevOps. This section shares common Configuration management questions. 

20. Why should you focus on Configuration Management?

Configuration Management allows you to improve performance and revise capability. You will be able to increase reliability, and maintainability, as well as extend the life of your application. You will also be able to reduce risks, costs, and liability. 

Jenkins Interview Questions with answers

21. What do you understand by 'Infrastructure as Code'?

It is basically a type of IT infrastructure that you can use to automatically manage your provisions through code. There is no need for manual testing.

22. Which community tools can you use to make Puppet more powerful?

You can use Git and Puppet's Code Manager app to make sure that the code is in accordance with best practices. You can also run all the Puppet changes through the continuous integration pipeline using the beaker testing framework.

23. What is the Puppet Module?

A Puppet Module is basically a collection of Puppet Manifests and data that have a very specific directory structure. It is useful for organizing your Puppet code as you will be able to split your code into different Puppet Manifests.

5. Containerization and Virtualization Interview Questions

Containerization is nowadays become an essential part of building and deploying application. Most of the application are deployed by creating Docker images on Cloud and they are managed by Kubernetes, which can automatically start, stop, and scale Docker containers. Having a solid knowledge of how Containers works and how to containerize an application can be really good skill for DevOps Engineer, familiarity with Docker and Kubernetes can be really great help.

24. What do you mean by containers?

Containers can be used to provide a consistent computing environment. It is made up of an entire runtime environment. It has an application, all of its dependencies, libraries, and binaries. It also has all the configuration files needed to run the application.

18. What are the advantages of Containerization?

Containers are lightweight and have better resource utilization. It can also provide real-time provisioning and scalability. It also has unlimited performance.

Container Interview Questions with Answers

25. What is a Docker image?

Docker images are used to create Docker containers. Docker images can be created using the build command. When an image is selected and starts to run, it will produce a container.

26. What do you know about Docker Hub?

Docker Hub is basically a cloud-based service that you can use to build images, test them, store manually published images, and deploy images to your hosts. It also gives you a centralized resource for storing your container images.

That's all about the most frequently asked DevOps Interview Questions with Answers. The questions in this article will easily help you land your dream DevOps job.  If you liked this list of the Top 20 DevOps Interview Questions with Answers, feel free to share it with your friends and family. You can also drop a comment if you have any questions regarding DevOps, and we will get back to you in an instant.

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Thanks for reading this article so far. All the best for your DevOps interviews and if you have any questions which don't know answer or any doubt feel free to ask in comments. 

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